PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA: THE PRESENT STATE, EXPERIENCE, ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES
Problem of research
The motto of Moscow Pedagogical State University – “Follow traditions – open to innovations” – personifies the orientation of the whole pedagogical education on a course of combining principles that take into account Russia special civilizational path and new best pedagogical practices and digital technologies.
The main trends of contemporary education recognized by everybody are creativity, critical thinking, communication, cooperation, digitalization. It is necessary to add to this list the following values traditional for Russian education: subject fundamentality, systematic character, practice orientation, strengthening of culturological and axiological components of education, in other words the achievement of synthesis of national and cultural traditions of Russian education and innovative direction of country development.
Identification and description of the present state and issues of pedagogical education in Russia, identification of further development perspectives.
The following methods were used in the present study: analysis of academic sources on the issue, method of independent evaluations, monitoring, modelling.
- Models of studies (bachelor and master) that came to Russia from the West in 2000s have impoverished traditionally strong Russian pedagogical education, therefore today there is a need to fill these models with new, more relevant to national traditions and state tasks content, strengthen its fundamentality. On the successful resolution of this issue the strategic development of the country, its leadership in the field of technologies and intellect depend. Emphasis should be given to the creative personality of future teacher capable to intensify cognitive opportunities of himself and his students.
- It is necessary to revise the content of pedagogical training of future teacher, by reinforcing the establishment of new educational world view on the basis of fundamental scientific knowledge and historical experience of Russia development and spiritual and moral human existence in the context of modern civilization issues. The ideology of practicality in determination of education content should be abandoned; the wide cultural and historical approach to education as a special social institute of transfer and promotion of national values and traditions in the process of education, training and human personality development should be reestablished.
- The consume approach to education as only a commercial service should be abolished, the notion of education should be relevant to the traditional Russian understanding: education of Russian citizen, a patriot of his country remembering and filling spiritual and moral principles bequeathed by ancestors; socialization through real communication (in contrast to technocratic one) and development of traditional Russian person qualities.
- Strictly technological and technocratic drive in the process of training at all levels of education, when there are approaches, but not the worldview, is necessary to replace by interdisciplinary synthesis, systematically uniting the different elements of professional worldview into a single whole.
- The restoration of social and professional credibility and the status of teacher should be the basis of maintaining and developing national system of pedagogical education.
- MPGU traditionally trained teachers not only of Russia, but also of near and far abroad countries, that’s why in 2018 our University became the basic institution of CIS member States in pedagogical staff training. This has necessitated conducting additional comparative studies in the field of pedagogical education in different countries.
Conclusions and recommendations
The mentioned problems should be solved throughout the whole post-Soviet space taking into account the positive experience of traditional teachers training. It’s necessary to return man to education to unite our national culture and national system of education.
The personality of teacher with breadth of vision, erudition and value system and cultural traditions should become the basis of pedagogical education. If in the pursuit of technologies we forget the main – man, his worldview, his universe inside him that he should transfer to his children, we will not be able to keep up with any technologies.
Key words: pedagogical education, perspectives of education development, subject fundamentality, systematic character, practice orientation, strengthening of culturological and axiological components of education.
Lubkov Alexey Vladimirovich,
Doctor in History, professor, corresponding member of the RAE,
Rector of Moscow Pedagogical State University